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How to choose a condenser

How to choose a condenser

  • 2020-10-28

The condenser is one of the main heat exchange equipment in the cold storage refrigeration system, and its function is to cool and condense the high temperature refrigerant superheated steam discharged from the assembled cold storage compressor into a high pressure liquid. The heat released by the refrigerant in the condenser is carried away by the cooling medium. According to the cooling medium, the assembled cold storage condenser is mainly divided into air-cooled and water-cooled. Smaller cold load is suitable for use in small active cold storage refrigeration systems.


Condenser structure

The outer casing is a cylinder welded by steel plate, and the shell-and-tube condenser is divided into vertical and horizontal. Vertical shell and tube condenser. A porous tube plate is welded to both ends of the cylinder, and a heat transfer tube is arranged in the hole for cooling the refrigerant. The utility model has the advantages of large structure and large consumables; low cooling water flow rate, easy scaling, large consumption of cooling water, and is suitable for an area with sufficient water source and low water hardness. The structure of the horizontal shell-and-tube condenser is similar to that of the vertical type. When the refrigerant is ammonia, the heat transfer tube is made of seamless steel tube, and when the refrigerant is freon, the heat transfer tube is made of low-ribbon copper tube. Horizontal shell-and-tube condensers have higher heat transfer coefficient and less cooling water consumption, but have higher requirements on water quality, and are widely used in large, medium and small cold storage ammonia and Freon refrigeration systems.


Types and advantages and disadvantages

According to the different cooling medium and cooling method, the condenser is divided into three categories: water-cooled condenser, air-cooled condenser and evaporative condenser.

Water-cooled condenser: wide application, compact structure and easy to use. The performance is basically stable, but the attenuation is faster, the efficiency is not too high, and the circulating water system needs to be configured. It is not suitable for water-deficient areas and low-temperature areas. The winter water system is easy to cause freezing and has a high failure rate. It is suitable for occasions with large condensation load and high ambient temperature. In operation, it must be operated in conjunction with a cold source or a heat counting device.

Air-cooled condenser: In the water-cooled condenser, it has a casing type, a shell tube type and a plate type according to its shape. One or more small diameter copper tubes (smooth or low-ribbed) are then bent into a circular or U-shaped spiral according to the requirements of the unit arrangement. The refrigerant vapor enters the outer casing from the upper part, and the casing type condenser for the assembly type cold storage refrigeration: a large diameter steel pipe or copper pipe. The condensate flows out from the lower part of the outer casing; while the cooling water enters the inner pipe from the lower part, flows backwards with the refrigerant, absorbs the heat of the refrigerant vapor along the path, and finally flows out from the upper part. This type of condenser is often used for cold load less than 40kW active cold storage, small cold storage freon refrigeration system. In an air-cooled condenser, the heat released by the refrigerant in the active cold storage compressor is carried away by the cooling water. The performance is reliable, the cost is slightly higher than water cooling, the operating pressure is high, and the operation and maintenance are simple to install. Suitable for areas where water resources are scarce.

Evaporative condenser: integrates condenser, mercury mercury, cooling tower and circulating pool. The utility model has the advantages of compact structure, small investment area, convenient use and maintenance, stable performance, obvious water saving and power saving, and low operating pressure. Energy saving than air cooling, water saving than water cooling.

Comprehensive comparison of evaporative condenser and water-cooled condenser and cooling tower total power consumption (refrigeration compressor power consumption + fan power consumption + circulating water mercury power consumption) can save 17%. The new cold storage is usually equipped with an evaporative condenser. All condensers operate by taking away the heat of the gas or vapor.


Selection of cold storage

Cold storage condenser selection, can be configured according to the actual situation of the cold storage project.

Air-type cold storage condenser is the most widely used cold storage condenser. It has many advantages such as simple structure, low price, less vulnerable parts, convenient installation and wide application range. Air-type cold storage condensers are generally suitable for use in small and medium-sized cold storage facilities, and there are also cases of large-scale cold storage projects in areas where water sources are depleted.

Evaporative cold storage condenser is a kind of condenser used in large-scale cold storage projects in recent years. It is a combination of air-type cold storage condenser and water-cooled condenser. This form of cold storage condenser is generally suitable for use in large cold storage projects, especially in the northwestern part where the water source is relatively exhausted.

Water-cooled cold storage condensers are generally common in large cold storage projects. The use of water-cooled cold storage condensers in large and medium-sized cold storage projects can effectively reduce the condensing pressure of cold storage equipment during operation. It greatly saves the energy consumption of the cold storage compressor operation and greatly prolongs the service life of the cold storage equipment. At present, the use of shell-and-tube type cold storage condensers in domestic cold storage projects is mostly used, and the casing type cold storage condensers are generally suitable for small cold storage projects with small cold applications.

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